She acted on that knowledge and quenched her thirst. Your helpful statement expressed a paradigmatic instance of knowledge of the external world. According to Locke there are two main questions to ask about any kind of knowledge, including cases like the knowledge of the external world you shared with your friend.
References and Further Reading 1. Behaviorists and Behaviorisms Behaviorism, notoriously, came in various sorts and has been, also notoriously, subject to variant sortings: Views commonly styled "behavioristic" share various of the following marks: Among these features, not even Zuriff's "fundamental premise" is shared by all and only behaviorists.
Notably, Gilbert Ryle, Ludwig Wittgenstein, and followers in the "ordinary language" tradition of analytic philosophy, while, for the most part, regarding behavioral scientific hopes as vain, hold views that are, in other respects, strongly behavioristic. Not surprisingly, these thinkers often downplay the "behaviorist" label themselves to distinguish themselves from their scientific behaviorist cousins.
Nevertheless, in philosophical discussions, they are commonly counted "behaviorists": Wilhelm Wundt, Ivan Pavlov Wundt is often called "the father of experimental psychology. The science of experience he envisaged was supposed to be chemistry like: Data were to be acquired and analyzed by trained introspective Observers.
While the analysis of experience was supposed to be a self-contained enterprise, Wundt -- originally trained as a physiologist -- fully expected that the structures and processes introspective analysis uncovered in experience would parallel structures and processes physiological investigation revealed in the central nervous system.
Introspectionism, as the approach was called, soon spread, and laboratories sprang up in the United States and elsewhere, aiming "to investigate the facts of consciousness, its combinations and relations," so as to "ultimately discover the laws which govern these relations and combinations" Wundt The approach failed primarily due to the unreliability of introspective Observation.
Introspective "experimental" results were not reliably reproducible by outside laboratories: Observers from different laboratories failed to agree, for instance, in their Observation or failure to Observe imageless thoughts to cite one notorious controversy.
Pavlov's successful experimental discovery the laws of classical conditioning as they came to be calledby way of contrast, provided positive inspiration for Watson's Behaviorist manifesto.
Pavlov's stimulus-response model of explanation is also paradigmatic to much later behavioristic thought.
In his famous experiments Pavlov paired presentations to dogs of an unconditioned stimulus food with an initially neutral stimulus a ringing bell. After a number of such joint presentations, the unconditional response to food salivation becomes conditioned to the bell: In accord with Pavlovian theory, then, given an animal's conditioning history behavioral responses e.
Edward Thorndike, in a similar methodological vein, proposed "that psychology may be, at least in part, as independent of introspection as physics" Thorndike In experimental investigations of puzzle-solving by cats and other animals, he established that speed of solution increased gradually as a result of previous puzzle exposure.
Such results, he maintained, support the hypothesis that learning is a result of habits formed through trial and error, and Thorndike formulated "laws of behavior," describing habit formation processes, based on these results. Most notable among Thorndike's laws presaging Skinnerian operant conditioning is his Law of Effect: Of several responses made to the same situation, those which are accompanied or closely followed by satisfaction to the animal will, other things being equal, be more firmly connected with the situation, so that, when it recurs, they will be more likely to recur; those which are accompanied or closely followed by discomfort to the animal will, other things being equal, have their connections with that situation weakened, so that, when it recurs, they will be less likely to occur.
The greater the satisfaction or discomfort, the greater the strengthening or weakening of the bond. Thorndike In short, rewarded responses tend to be reinforced and punished responses eliminated. His methodological innovations particularly his "puzzle-box" facilitated objective quantitative data collection and provided a paradigm for Behaviorist research methods to follow especially the "Skinner box".
Early Behaviorism Watson coined the term "Behaviorism" as a name for his proposal to revolutionize the study of human psychology in order to put it on a firm experimental footing.
In opposition to received philosophical opinion, to the dominant Introspectionist approach in psychology, and many said to common sense, Watson advocated a radically different approach. Where received "wisdom" took conscious experience to be the very stuff of minds and hence the only appropriate object of psychological investigation, Watson advocated an approach that led, scientifically, "to the ignoring of consciousness" and the illegitimacy of "making consciousness a special object of observation.In philosophy, empiricism is a theory that states that knowledge comes only or primarily from sensory experience.
It is one of several views of epistemology, the study of human knowledge, along with rationalism and leslutinsduphoenix.comcism emphasises the role of empirical evidence in the formation of ideas, over the idea of innate ideas or traditions.
Behaviorism. Behaviorism was a movement in psychology and philosophy that emphasized the outward behavioral aspects of thought and dismissed the inward experiential, and sometimes the inner procedural, aspects as well; a movement harking back to the methodological proposals of John B.
Watson, who coined the name. DESCARTES AND LOCKE (Knowledge) One of the most important branches in philosophy, is Epistemology, which means, theory of knowledge. So far, philosophers have made many attempts to discover the source of knowledge, the standards or criteria by which we can judge the reliability of knowledge.
Both Descartes and Locke attempt to find answers to the same questions in metaphysics and epistemology; among these: What is knowledge?
Is there certainty in knowledge? Is there certainty in knowledge? compare and contrast.
scroll to top. Epistemology Essay Examples. 27 total results. A Comparison Between the Concepts of Metaphysics and Epistemology. words. 1 page. A Comparison of Perspectives of Descartes and Locke Regarding Epistemology. 1, words.
3 pages. The Argument of the Rhetorical Question and . Mind–body dualism, or mind–body duality, is a view in the philosophy of mind that mental phenomena are, in some respects, non-physical, or that the mind and body are distinct and separable.
Thus, it encompasses a set of views about the relationship between mind and matter, and between subject and object, and is contrasted with other positions, such as physicalism and enactivism, in the.