The early part of the story is told in the Hebrew Bible Old Testament. It describes how God chose the Jews to be an example to the world, and how God and his chosen people worked out their relationship. It was a stormy relationship much of the time, and one of the fascinating things about Jewish history is to watch God changing and developing alongside his people. The birth of the Jewish people and the start of Judaism is told in the first 5 books of the Bible.
With some exceptions in the first third of the 20th century, economic history has been a rather marginal topic within Jewish historiography until recent years. While the scholars of the Wissenschaft des Judentums in 19th-century Germany focused on the study of Jewish intellectual history, Jewish historians in eastern Europe had a stronger interest in social and partly economic history, though often from a national, Zionist, or Marxist point of view.
Since the late s, Jewish economic history has been of an increasing interest to scholars of Jewish history, characterized by attempts at a better contextualization of Jewish economic activities and the integration of these activities within general developments, as well as a turn to new approaches such as the study of consumption in the wake of cultural history or the examination of transnational phenomena.
This article will cover the literature on Jewish economic history and the perception of Jewish economic activities from the Middle Ages to the 20th century. As most general volumes on the history of the Jews of a certain territory, state, or time period contain some information on economic history, only literature that deals explicitly with Jewish economic history has been included.
This bibliography focuses only on works that take Jewish economic history as their central concern; other studies that have Jewish economic concerns as ancillary topics, particularly those about the United States, are not included.
General Overviews Only a small number of works have been published that cover various aspects of Jewish economic history in a broad and general fashion.
Straus emphasizes the importance of the legal status of the Jews for their economic development. Baron and Kahan provides a broad overview of Jewish economic activities, while Arkin focuses on the Jewish role in the economic development of the Western world.
Kuznets and Kahan provide rather programmatic essays on research into Jewish economic history, the first describing Jews as comparable to other minority groups, the latter arguing for applying economics to Jewish economic history.
Attali is a recent attempt on general considerations of Jewish economic history, but is mainly interested in the relationship between Jews and money.
Wischnitzer examines a much less studied field of Jewish economic history, the Jewish involvement in crafts and artisanship and its organizational forms such as guilds from ancient Israel and Palestine to Europe, and from the Middle Ages until the early 19th century.
Botticini and Eckstein is a recent though controversial attempt by two economists to overturn the common assumption that the shift from agriculture to urban skilled occupations among Jews was due to anti-Jewish measures and legal restrictions concerning landownership and the membership in crafts guilds.
They argue that this shift was rather closely linked to the transition from Judaism as a religion based on ritual sacrifice to a religion based on reading and studying after the destruction of the Second Temple. Thus, the rise of literacy together with a uniform code of law the Talmud and legal institutions created the proneness to and precondition for the entry into moneylending, commerce, and entrepreneurship.
Aspects of Jewish Economic History. Jewish Publication Society of America, Spans from antiquity to the modern period. Discusses especially the attitudes of authors like Werner Sombart and Karl Marx, and provides the biographies of well-known Jewish entrepreneurs.
The Economic History of the Jewish People. Recent attempt at a comprehensive overview of Jewish economic history, chronologically and geographically inclusive. Follows a strong interest in the question of whether Jews have a special relationship to money, and argues that the history of the Jews reveals the role of all minorities in human history.
Economic History of the Jews. Edited by Nachum Gross. Keter Publishing House, Botticini, Maristella, and Zvi Eckstein.
How Education Shaped Jewish History, 70— Princeton University Press, Studies in Jewish Languages, Literature, and Society. Edited by Lucy S. London and The Hague: Walter De Gruyter, Argues for the collection of broad demographic and economic data to reconstruct the economic milieu in which Jews were active, and for a more rigorous application of economic analysis.
Edited by Louis Finkelstein, — Argues that occupational choices are significantly narrower for a minority, and that its economic rise is often more significant than that of the general population. Die Juden in Wirtschaft und Gesellschaft: A History of Jewish Crafts and Guilds.Conversion to Judaism (Hebrew: גיור , giyur) is the religious conversion of non-Jews to become members of the Jewish religion and Jewish ethnoreligious community.
The procedure and requirements for conversion depend on the sponsoring denomination.A conversion in accordance with the process of a denomination is not a guarantee of recognition by another denomination. The first section of this article treats the history of Judaism in the broadest and most complete sense, from the early ancestral beginnings of the Jewish people to contemporary times.
In the second section the beliefs, practices, and culture of Judaism are discussed. Corbett carefully details the sordid back story of today's "oiligarchy." While most people are well-acquainted with the Rockefeller name, few probably know the true history of .
Origins of Judaism. Jewish history begins with the covenant established between God and Abraham around BC, during the Bronze Age, in the Middle East. Abraham is a central figure in Judaism, being considered the Patriarch and progenitor of the Jewish people.
Jul 01, · The history of Judaism is inseparable from the history of Jews themselves. The early part of the story is told in the Hebrew Bible (Old Testament).
It describes how God chose the Jews to . The Seven Churches of Revelation: Part 2A of The Coming Tribulation series: a History of the Apocalypse; Revelation chapters two and three: a survey of the seven churches showing how they predict the seven eras of the church during the church's year history, including Ephesus: the era of Initiation (Rev), Smyrna: the era of Persecution (Rev), Pergamum: the era of.