See Article History Alternative Title: Ives, Cornwallsculptor whose works were among the earliest abstract sculptures produced in England. Her lyrical forms and feeling for material made her one of the most influential sculptors of the midth century. Interview with British sculptor Barbara Hepworth and shots of her nine-work series Family of Man,
Proportion How sculptors handle proportionality varies considerably. Egyptian sculptors observed hierarchic non-naturalistic canons of proportion eg. Gods the largest, Pharaohs next largest, citizens smallest etc. Other sculptors have followed more naturalistic but equally iconometric rules of proportion.
By comparison, many tribal cultures employ systems which - for religious or cultural reasons - accord greater size to certain parts of the body eg.
In addition, the specific siting of a sculpture may require a special approach to proportionality. For example, a human statue mounted on the top of a tall structure may require a larger upper body to balance the effects of foreshortening when viewed from ground level.
The great rococo painter Tiepolo was a master at counteracting this effect when creating his ceiling frescos. Scale This refers, for example, to the need to create a sculpture in tune with the scale of its surroundings.
Walk around any major Gothic cathedral and observe the great variety in the scale of the sculptures which decorate the doorways, facades and other surfaces. In addition, certain groups of figures, illustrating Biblical scenes, may contain several different scales: Articulation This describes how sculptural figures and other forms are jointed: The realist French sculptor Auguste Rodin created impressionist-style continuity in his figures, in contrast to the earlier Greek classical sculptors eg.
Polyklitus and Renaissance sculptors who preferred distinct units of delinated form. Balance In freestanding figurative sculpture, balance involves two principal matters. First, the sculptural body must be physically stable - easy enough to achieve in a crawling or reclining figure, less easy in a standing statue, especially if leaning forwards or backwards.
If naturally unstable, a base must be used. Second, from a compositional viewpoint, the statue must project a sense of dynamic or static equilibrium. Without such harmony, beauty is almost impossible to achieve.
The Best Way to Understand Sculpture Are you baffled by all these weird concepts about the elements and principles of sculptural design theory? Don't worry, many art critics are, too.
The best way to understand sculpture is to look at as much of it as you can, ideally in the flesh. If possible, visit your nearest public art museum and take a look at some copies of Greek or Renaissance sculpture. This should give you a good grasp of traditional-style works. Works of abstract sculpture by any of these modern artists should give you plenty to think about.
Materials Almost any material capable of being shaped in three dimensions can be used in sculpting. But some materials like stone - especially hard limestone marble - wood, clay, metal eg.
As a result, for most of its history, sculpture has been created using four basic methods: A rare type was chryselephantine sculpturereserved exclusively for major cult statues. Stone Sculpture Stone sculptureprobably the earliest form of monumental sculpture as well as the best medium for monumental works, was common to many eras of the Paleolithic Stone Age.
Prototype works of prehistoric stone sculpture include the basaltic figurine known as The Venus of Berekhat Ram c. Since then, probably the largest body of stone sculpture was the series of column statues and reliefs produced for the great European Gothic cathedrals of Chartres, Notre Dame de Paris, Amiens, Reims, Cologne, among many others, during the period Stones from all three principal categories of rock formation have been sculpted, including igneous eg.
Pure white Italian Carrara marble was used in Roman art and in Italian Renaissance Sculpture by artists like Donatello and Michelangelo, while Greek artists preferred Pentelic marble to make the Parthenon sculptures.
Irish sculpture in the late medieval era was principally confined to Celtic High Crossesmade from granite. Supreme examples of marble sculpture are Venus de Milo c. Jade Sculpture The best-known form of hardstone sculpture, jade carving has been a speciality of Chinese master craftsmen ever since Neolithic times.
Nephrite and Jadeite are the two most common types of jade stone, although bowenite a form of serpentine is also used.
The Chinese attribute important qualities to jade, including purity, beauty, longevity, even immortality, and sculptors value jade stones for their lustre, translucent colours and shades.
Wood Sculpture Wood carving is the oldest and most continuous type of sculpture. Especially convenient for small works, wood carving was widely practised during the Prehistoric age, and later during the era of Early Christian sculpture - see, for instance, the gilded oak carving known as the Gero CrossCologne Cathedral - and had its Golden Age in the West, especially in Germany, during the era of late Medieval art: Later, in the Baroque era, wood was often coated in plaster stucco and painted, in the manner of ancient Egyptian art.
Great modern wood-sculptors include Henry Moore known for his elmwood Reclining Figureand Barbara Hepworth Bronze Sculpture Sculpting in bronze is a complicated process which was developed independently in China, South America and Egypt. Bronze casting requires the modelling of a form in clay, plaster or wax, which is later removed after the molten bronze has been poured.The Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden offers a remarkable insight into the work and outlook of one of Britain’s most important twentieth century artists.
Joseph Goto was one of the most forceful and original artists in 20th century Chicago.
An enormous talent and a voluble personality, Goto was born in Hawaii, where he learned to weld while working for the military, but he moved to Chicago to follow his brother, Byron .
The modern sculpture movement can be said to begin at the Rodin exhibit at the Universal Exhibition held in Paris in At this event Rodin showed his Burghers of Calais, Balzac, Victor Hugo statues, and the exhibition included the first public showing of his Gates of Hell which included The Thinker..
Cubist sculpture, in the early 20th century, was a style that developed in parallel with. Barbara Hepworth, in full Dame Jocelyn Barbara Hepworth, (born January 10, , Wakefield, Yorkshire, England—died May 20, , St. Ives, Cornwall), sculptor whose works were among the earliest abstract sculptures produced in England.
Her lyrical forms and feeling for material made her one of. In association with the BBC FOUR season, 'Focus on Sculpture', this collection explores the work of a series of influential British sculptors.
Champions of modernism such as Jacob Epstein, Henry. The Barbara Hepworth Museum and Sculpture Garden in St Ives, Cornwall preserves the 20th-century sculptor Barbara Hepworth's studio and garden much as they were when she lived and worked there. She purchased the site in and lived and worked there for 26 years until her death in a fire on the premises in