Burma was separated from India and directly administered by the British Crown from until its independence in The Trucial States of the Persian Gulf and the states under the Persian Gulf Residency were theoretically princely states as well as presidencies and provinces of British India until and used the rupee as their unit of currency. Ceylon was part of Madras Presidency between and
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. British rule An English expedition of assessed the potential of the island, and on Feb. The early period of English settlement was marked by the insecurity resulting from infrequent provision of supplies from Europe and the difficulty in establishing a profitable export crop.
This was complicated by bitter squabbles over the claims of rival lords proprietors and over the question of allegiance to either the British crown or Parliament during the constitutional conflicts of the s that led to the English Civil Wars.
As in the earlier cases of Bermuda and Virginia, an assembly made up of owners of at least 10 acres 4 hectares of freehold land was established in Barbados in Elections were held annually.
There were also a council and a governor who was appointed first by the lord proprietor and, after the s, by the king. The economy of the early colonial era was marked by a pattern of family farms and by a diversity of products including aloes, fustic a dye-producing woodindigo, and, above all, cotton and tobacco.
The search for a profitable export crop ended in the s, when Dutch assistance enabled the colonists to convert to sugar production. The Sugar Revolution, as it is called, had momentous social, economic, and political consequences. The elite in Barbados chose a form of sugar production that yielded the greatest level of profit—but at great social cost.
They decided to establish large sugarcane plantations, cultivated by oppressed labourers from West Africawho were brought British rule the island British rule enslaved in accordance with a series of slave laws enacted from onward.
Society in Barbados was composed of three categories of persons: Some whites were free and some were indentured; some coloureds were free and some were enslaved; and some blacks were free and some were enslaved. No whites were enslaved.
There was a twofold population movement between and Many small family farms were bought up and amalgamated into plantations.
Consequently, there was a significant emigration of whites to Jamaica and to the North American colonies, notably the Carolinas. At the same time the Royal African Company a British slaving company and other slave traders were bringing increasing numbers of African men, women, and children to toil in the fields, mills, and houses.
The ethnic mix of the population changed accordingly.
In the early s there were probably 37, whites and 6, blacks; by there were about 20, whites and 46, blacks; and inwhen slavery was abolished, there were some 15, whites and 88, blacks and coloureds.
In European markets, sugar was a scarce and therefore valuable commodity, and Barbadian sugar planters, particularly in the 17th century, reaped huge profits out of the early lead that the island established in sugar production. Increasing wealth brought consolidation of political power for a planter elite, and Barbadian society became a plantocracy, with white planters controlling the economy and government institutions.
Though enslaved people continually resisted their bondage, the effective authoritarian power of slave-owning planters ensured that, apart from a major slave rebellion in that was put down by the local militia and British troops, there was no effective threat to their control.
Sugar remained ascendant in Barbados even through the 19th-century crises caused by the emancipation of enslaved people, free tradeand competition from the European beet sugar industry.
This was mainly because a dense population provided cheap labour and because the political power of the white planters and merchant elite ensured that government resources would be used to rescue the industry in any emergency.
The workers therefore carried the burden in low wages and minimal social services. This situation encouraged emigration often frustrated by the elite and occasional, futile political protests. By the s the social and political pressures from below could no longer be contained. Population increase, the closing of emigration outlets, the economic effects of the worldwide Great Depressionand the spread of socialist ideology and the black nationalist movement of the Jamaican leader Marcus Garvey had created conditions for a labour revolt.
By then, middle-class reformers had begun to agitate against the restricted political franchise the right to vote was limited to males and restricted by income and property qualifications and the inadequate social services. Out of a series of labour disturbances of emerged a clear challenge to the existing order.
The West Indies Royal Commission Moyne Commissiondispatched in to report on social and economic conditions in the British West Indies, endorsed some of the political and social reforms that were advocated by the leaders of the new mass organizations, particularly the full legalization of trade unions and the extension of the political franchise.
In Barbados black political leaders gained ascendancy byuniversal adult suffrage was adopted inand full internal self-government was achieved in British administration and bureaucracy were efficient, as was the British style education system Britain established.
However, even these developments contained the seeds of problems for British rule.
Nov 23, · British Occupation Of India In Color - Full Documentary Shashi Tharoor argues why British Rule destroyed India, British is rich because of India. The very idea of the British Raj—the British rule over India—seems inexplicable today.
Consider the fact that Indian written history stretches back almost 4, years, to the civilization centers of the Indus Valley Culture at Harappa and Mohenjo-Daro.
Also, by , India had a population of at. Independence from British rule was achieved in with the formation of two nations, the Dominions of India and Pakistan, the latter also including East Bengal, present-day Bangladesh.
The term British India also applied to Burma for a shorter time period: starting in , a small part of Burma, and by , almost two-thirds of Burma had Casa da Índia: – The British Raj (/ r ɑː dʒ /; from rāj, literally, "rule" in Hindustani) was the rule by the British Crown in the Indian subcontinent between and The rule is .
British Empire, overseas territories linked to Great Britain in a variety of constitutional relationships, established over a period of three centuries. The establishment of the e.