A more flexible representation of substantive theory. Psychological Methods, 17, Click ""download paper"" below for the latest version of October 21,
Presenting data clearly and effectively Terminology Regardless of the delivery format, content should be presented in a clear manner.
In addition, consideration should be given to the use of terminology and the provision of definitions, if necessary as well as the way that data is displayed.
The ultimate goal is for families and community members to understand the data and take action to support student achievement. As such, transparency in terminology use and display of data are useful in promoting understanding of data. Some states identify schools as low-performing to high-performing, others issue a letter grade such as A—F, still others use terms such as priority or outstanding.
States also differ in how they identify student achievement levels. The Education Trust uses the terminology, advanced, proficient, basic, and below basic in its guide for parents and communities. The authors found that this fourth category "is very useful for identifying students who have not [achieved] even the basic level" p.
Using clear language and categories for education data will help to increase understanding. The authors suggest that calculating average scores for each quartile and tracking changes would provide an even stronger report, and add that, "When the results of standardized tests are reported in terms of average scores or the percentage reaching a particular cut point or level, students, parents, and even teachers are left pretty much in the dark about what, specifically, a student is able to do at any particular point" p.
In addition to considering the terminology and methods employed, decision makers should consider the use of graphic objects to aid in displaying data. Graphic Objects There are various graphic objects for visually presenting data, including tables, charts, and graphs.
However, each differs in its ability to convey certain types of data. Prior to selecting a graphic object, decision makers should take into account the amount and type of data in addition to the individual characteristics of the graphic object.
In Table 2, Visual Representations of Data, descriptions of graphic objects that are often used to present data are provided along with suggestions for their use. Visual Representations of Data Graphic Object Description and Suggested Use Histogram Histograms are used to display the frequency or proportion of cases that fall within defined intervals or columns.
The bars on the histogram can be of varying width and typically display continuous data. Bar Graph Bar graphs are used to compare values across categories or to track changes over time. Line Graph Line graphs are used to display the relationship between two types of information.
Line graphs can also be used to compare changes over the same time frame for more than one group. Pie Chart Pie charts are used to compare parts of a whole. They do not show changes over time.I. Literature on impact of family involvement on general education outcomes academic achievement. Hill and Tyson () reported various types Achievement.
British Educational Research Journal, 31(4), II. Literature on impact of family involvement on literacy.
THE EFFECTS OF PARENT INVOLVEMENT ON STUDENT SUCCESS by Jane L. Rahman A Research Paper may not be as effective in increasing school achievement for children from families of The role of parent-school involvement in explaining academic outcomes for children of lower socioeconomic status may be.
3 significantly . From Inquiry to Academic Writing with MLA Update [Stuart Greene, April Lidinsky] on leslutinsduphoenix.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
THIS TITLE HAS BEEN UPDATED TO REFLECT THE MLA UPDATES! Our editorial team has updated . Research Question One Is the academic performance of junior high school students influenced by their choice of extracurricular activities?
Question 1 of the survey instrument located in Appendix C addressed this research question. » Articles published in the past year To view other articles click corresponding year from the navigation links on the side bar. EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology. Developed by: W.
Huitt Last updated: November