Martin Luther and John Calvin.
On April 19,a protest against this decision was read on behalf of 14 free cities of Germany and six Lutheran princes who declared that the majority decision did not bind them because they were not a party to it and that if forced to choose between obedience to God and obedience to Caesar they must choose obedience to God.
They appealed either to a general council of all Christendom or to a synod of the whole German nation. Those who made this protest became known to their opponents as Protestants, and gradually the label was applied to all who adhered to the tenets of the Reformationespecially to those living outside Germany.
In Germany the adherents of the Reformation preferred the name evangelicals and in France Huguenots. The name was attached not only to the disciples of Martin Luther c. The Swiss reformers and their followers in Holland, England, and Scotlandespecially after the 17th century, preferred the name Reformed.
In the 16th century Protestant referred primarily to the two great schools of thought that arose in the Reformation, the Lutheran and the Reformed. Roman Catholics, however, used it for all who claimed to be Christian but opposed Catholicism except the Eastern churches.
They therefore included Baptists, Quakers, and Catholic-minded Anglicans under the term. Before the year this broad usage was accepted, though the word was not yet applied to Unitarians. Throughout the 18th century the word Protestant was still defined in relation to the 16th-century Reformation.
Owen Chadwick The context of the late medieval church The Protestant Reformation occurred against the background of the rich ferment of the late medieval church and society.
It has been difficult for two reasons to gain a proper understanding of the relationship between the late Middle Ages and the Reformation. One reason is the tradition of the sectarian historiography of the period.
Catholic historians had an interest in showing how much reform occurred before and apart from the activities of the Protestant reformers of the 16th century.
Protestant historians, on the other hand, portrayed the late medieval church in the most negative terms to show the necessity of the Reformation, which was characterized as a movement that broke completely with a corrupt past. The existence of reform efforts in the 15th-century church from Spain and Italy northward through Germany, France, and England has long been acknowledged.
Some of these were directed against abuses by the papacythe clergyand monks and nuns. The pious, for example, abhorred Pope Innocent VIII —92who performed marriage ceremonies for his own illegitimate children in the Vatican, and Pope Alexander VI —who bribed his way to the throne of St.
Peter and had fathered eight children by three women by the time he became pope. The public was also increasingly aware of and angered by extravagant papal projects—patronage of art and architecture, wars of conquest—for which funds were exacted from the faithful.
The distaste for the papacy increased at a time of rising nationalist spirit. The popes, who had long intervened in European political affairs, faced setbacks when European monarchs acquired new power and asserted it against both the papacy and the local clergy.
During this time of rising national consciousnessa generation of theologians appeared who remained entirely within the context of medieval Roman Catholicism but who engaged in fundamental criticisms of it. Thus William of Ockham died ?
Ockham saw the papacy and empire as independent but related realms. He believed that when the church was in danger of heresylay people—princes and commoners alike—must come to its rescue. Wycliffe encouraged reform of the church and its teachings and granted uncommon spiritual authority to the king.
His primary source of inspiration for reform was the Bible. Wycliffe gave impetus to its translation, and in he helped make it available to rulers and ruled alike.A fresh citrus explosion at the top notes (tangerine, grapefruit, lime and bergamot) is harmonized with a floral sharpness of lavender, nut, spiced notes of coriander and warm cinnamon.
What were john Locke's main ideas? People are the source of government, power. Denies its power from the people, government is to meet the needs of their people if the government fails to do so, people have the right to overthrow of the government.
Martin Luther and John Calvin were major leaders of the Reformation. Luther's name is the one that is most connected to the Reformation because it was his criticisms of the Church that led to the.
LETTERS OF CATHERINE BENINCASA. ST. CATHERINE OF SIENA AS SEEN IN HER LETTERS. I. The letters of Catherine Benincasa, commonly known as St. Catherine of Siena, have become an Italian classic; yet perhaps the first thing in them to strike a reader is their unliterary character.
Calvin and Hobbes is a daily comic strip by American cartoonist Bill Watterson that was syndicated from November 18, to December 31, Commonly cited as "the last great newspaper comic", Calvin and Hobbes has enjoyed broad and enduring popularity, influence, and academic interest.
Calvin and Hobbes follows the humorous antics of Calvin, a precocious, mischievous, and adventurous six. Of the countries that sent exiles to Calvin’s Geneva, none was more important than England and the British Isles.
John Knox, who led the Reformation in Scotland, spent some time in Switzerland at the feet of Calvin, learning his Reformation theology there.