Because his father, Alexander Stirling Calder, received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder's childhood. Calder was encouraged to create, and from the age of eight he always had his own workshop wherever the family lived.
Thomas, but also to St. In the third century, Arnobius, in "Adversus Gentes", speaks of the Seres, with the Persians and the Medes, as among the nations reached by "that new power which has arisen from the works done by the Lord and his Apostles". Though there is evidence that Christianity existed in Mesopotamia and Persia during the fourth century, as evidenced by the persecutions which began in under Saporthere is no proof that it spread to China.
After the condemnation of Nestorius, Patriarch of Constantinople, at the Council of Ephesus and his banishment, his disciples spread his errors through Asia. They seemed to have reached China in the seventh century, according to the Si-ngan-fu inscription. According to Pauthier, the T'ang Emperor, Hiuan T'sung issued in an edict wherein it was stated that the temples of the religion from Ta Ta'in being known popularly as Persian templesit was ordered that, this being inaccurate, thenceforth the latter name should be changed to Ta Ts'in temples.
Si-ngan-fu inscription In the year the Jesuits Jose parla and his work Peking were informed that a slab referring to the Christian religion had been found not long before, possibly inat Ch'ang-ngan Si-ngan-fu.
Father Nicolas Trigault was sent to inspect the stone, which had been discovered at Cheu-che, some distance from Ch'ang-ngan. It was one of the monuments called by the Chinese antiquaries pei. The French traveller, Grenard, who visited Si-ngan-fu a few years ago gives the following measurements: At the top a cross is incised, under which nine large characters in three columns for the heading, which reads as follows: Monument commemorating the introduction and propagation of the noble law of Ta T'sin in the Middle Kingdom.
According to the text of the inscription, Olopen arrived from Ta T'sin at Ch'ang-ngan in the ninth year of the period Chang-kwan ; Emperor T'ai Tsung sent his minster, Duke Fang Huan-ling, to receive him and conduct him to the palace; the Scriptures were translated, and the Emperor, becoming convinced of the correctness and truth of Olopen's religion, gave special orders for its propagation, and in the seventh month of the twelfth year of Chang-kwanin the autumn, issued a proclamation: The conclusion of the inscription runs as follows: Erected in the second year of the period Kien-chung of the great T'ang dynasty, the year star being in Tso-yo, on the seventh day of the first month, being Sunday.
The inscription consists of characters; in addition to the Chinese characters, at the foot and on the sides, the stele also exhibits a series of data in the Syriac language, in Estrangelo characters.
Hirth makes Olopen stand for Rubenor Rupen. It appears from a paper by J. The question of the authenticity of the inscription has been formerly often raised, but today no one can doubt the genuineness of this most important document for the history of the propagation of the Faith in the Far East; we fully agree with A.
If the Nestorian tablet can be proved a forgerythere are few existing memorials of bygone dynasties which can withstand the same type of arguments.
This inscription is generally considered as emanating from Nestorians ; but this is supported only by circumstantial evidence, for it must be remarked that nothing in it is characteristic of Nestorianism.
When Kublai removed his capital to Peking, he founded in the chief Christian consistory, under the name of Ch'ung-fu-tze; the priests of the Nestorian sect were known as Erkeun Ye-li Ko-wen.
The last name, however, disappeared with the removal of the capital to Peking. Mar Sergius, a Nestorianand other Christians are mentioned in a description of Chin-kiang-fu.
The Nestorians had a number of bishoprics throughout Asia and two archbishoprics, one at Cambalue Pekingone at Tangut Tanchet ; there is even a record of a Chinese NestorianMar Jabalaha b.
This is a proof of the influence of the Mongols of China. Buddhismhowever, prevailed at court, and two of the Nestorian churches were converted to heathen temples. The prosperity of the Nestorians in China continued through the Mongol period. We may judge their numbers and influence by the fact that friar Oderic, aboutfound three Nestorian churches in the city of Yang-chou, but soon afterwards they fell into decay.
Evidence of their existence was found by the Jesuits at the beginning of the seventeenth century. Medieval Catholic missions The great religious crusade in Asia during the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries dates from the Council of Lyons held in by Pope Innocent IV.
The interests of Christendom were threatened by the Mongolian conquest, and it became necessary to send ambassadors to the Tatar chief to find out his intentions. Two mendicant ordersthe Franciscans and the Dominicanswho had been instituted at the beginning of the thirteenth century, were ready to furnish the agents for the mission.
They went by way of Moscow and Kieff, and in February,reached the camp of Batu, grandson of Jenghiz, on the Volga; thence they went to Karakorum to the to the court of Kuyuk Khan. On 13 November they began their return voyage with the Mongol chief's reply to the papal letter and reached Avignon in As a reward, Carpini was appointed Archbishop of Antivari.
Louis, King of Francesent the FranciscanWilliam of Rubruck known as Rubruquisto the court of Mangu Khan, successor of Kuyuk; he returned to his convent at Acrewere he wrote an account of his voyage.Enhancing lives today and accelerating a spectrum of solutions for tomorrow.
Across the spectrum and throughout the life span. José Parlá (born in Miami, Florida), is a Brooklyn-based contemporary artist whose work has been described as "lying between the boundary of abstraction and calligraphy.".
Parlá is publicly known for his permanent installations of large-scale paintings. In he painted the mural Nature of Language at the James B.
Library at North Carolina State University, the mural Diary Education: Savannah College of Art and Design, New World School of the Arts.
The former graffiti artist is now recognized as a leading painter and muralist, with his work installed at the new World Trade Center towerFounded: Sep 18, Home Essays Jose Parla and His Work. Jose Parla and His Work. Topics: Art, famous psychologist well known for his work in the field of child development As Montessori Program model.
He is considered by many to be the father of child development study in the United States. Latest breaking news, including politics, crime and celebrity. Find stories, updates and expert opinion.
BIOGRAPHY. Alexander Calder was born in , the second child of artist parents—his father was a sculptor and his mother a painter.
Because his father, Alexander Stirling Calder, received public commissions, the family traversed the country throughout Calder's childhood.