New behaviors or changes in behaviors are acquired through associations between stimuli and responses Information processing leads to understanding and retention We construct our own knowledge of the world based on individual experiences Behaviorism Behaviorism stems from the work of B. Skinner and the concept of operant conditioning. Behaviorism theorists believe that knowledge exists independently and outside of people. They view the learner as a blank slate who must be provided the experience.
The historical influences of CBT can be found in the behavioral approaches: Other influences that shaped the philosophical foundations of CBT include Greek and Roman Stoicism and the Eastern philosophies of Buddhism and Taoism, with their emphasis on reason, logic, acceptance, and mindfulness.
Both these models stress that cognitions, in the form of judgments, meanings, attributions, and assumptions tied to life events, are the primary factors that influence how individuals respond to environmental cues. The CBT emphasis on internal, private, conscious thought represented a departure from psychoanalytic theory, which emphasizes unconscious motivation of behavior, as well as from behaviorism, with its focus on external observable and measurable behaviors.
The various cognitive-behavioral approaches share a number of similarities that include a focus on conscious thinking; the importance laid on information processing and the role that cognitions play in how we process information from our environment and respond to situations; and the assumption that, by changing irrational or maladaptive thoughts in a more rational, logical, realistic, and balanced perspective, people are capable of increasing healthy functioning.
CBT is a present-oriented, relatively brief, structured, problem-focused, empirically driven form of psychotherapy. In the late 20th and early 21st centuries, various models of CBT have been applied to a wide range of mental health problems, substance abuse issues, and other disorders.
More importantly, CBT continues to generate voluminous research studies, articles, and books, discussing its application across various disorders and with diverse populations, making it one of the most empirically based systems of psychotherapy.
Although an all-inclusive review of CBT-related works is not possible here, we have selected works that will either help the readers get a better understanding and insight into various aspects of CBT or pique their curiosity to seek additional information on their own.
For this purpose, we have included newer material along with older works that we consider to be important in the context of the history and evolution of CBT and that have become essential readings for those interested in CBT. Introductory Works In this section, we have chosen to include works that either give the reader a broad perspective of CBT or focus in more detail on specific models that fall under the CBT umbrella.
In DiGiuseppe, et al. Throughout the years, other influential approaches have expanded and broadened the CBT umbrella, including Donald H. Linehan offers a detailed discussion of dialectical behavior therapy DBT for the treatment of borderline personality disorders.
PST focuses on training individuals in the effective use of a systematic approach to problem solving in order to increase healthful coping and adaptation to life challenges.
Cognitive therapy and the emotional disorders. It also presents techniques of CT, with a special chapter on the cognitive therapy of depression. Doyle, Windy Dryden, and Wouter Backx.
The narrative is divided into five sections that take the reader through the philosophy and theory of REBT, assessment strategies and the A-B-C model, therapeutic strategies and disputation and challenge of irrational beliefs, and the effective use of homework assignments. It could be used as a textbook for students.
A positive approach to clinical intervention. Reason and emotion in psychotherapy: A comprehensive method of treating human disturbances. Includes key philosophical assumptions of the theory, application of REBT to various issues e.
Strosahl, and Kelly G. Acceptance and commitment therapy: The process and practice of mindful change.
Discussion of the research supporting ACT is also included. Kazantzis, Nikolaos, Mark A. Reinecke, and Arthur Freeman, eds. Cognitive and behavioral theories in clinical practice. For each model there is an introduction and historical background, philosophical and theoretical underpinnings, empirical evidence, the application to clinical practice with case illustrations, and summary and conclusions, addressing in some cases future directions, challenges, and limitations of the model.
Cognitive-behavioral treatment of borderline personality disorder. Includes a discussion of the theoretical foundation of DBT, behavioral targets and the structure of treatment around target behaviors, and specific treatment and case management strategies. Self-instructional and stress-inoculation models are presented, with a focus on cognitive-restructuring techniques and the three-stage stress inoculation training SIT model: Williams, and John D.
Mindfulness-based cognitive therapy for depression.Let's consider the 4 grand theories one at a time. The Conflict Theory is a macro theory. A Macro theory is a sociological theory designed to study the larger social, global, and societal level of sociological phenomena. This theory was founded by a German philosopher, economist, sociologist, and revolutionary ().
A learning theory attempts to explain how people and animals learn, whereas the social learning theories take to a different level; they attempt to explain how organisms learn in social settings.
Three important concepts of Bandura’s social learning theory include observational learning, modeling, and imitation. Enter your mobile number or email address below and we'll send you a link to download the free Kindle App.
Then you can start reading Kindle books on your smartphone, tablet, or computer - . Jan 11, · The theory suggests that humans construct knowledge and meaning from their experiences. Constructivism is not a specific pedagogy. Piaget's theory of Constructivist learning has had wide ranging impact on learning theories and teaching methods in education and is an underlying theme of many education reform movements.
This theory proposes that human behavior is influenced by two factors: attitudes towards the behavior; the influence of social environment and general subjective norms on the behavior.
Social norms are determined by examples that significant others set for us and by the attitudes they convey to us.
Reasoned Action and Social Learning. Social Learning Theory The social learning theory was developed by Albert Bandura, this theory suggests that behaviour is learned through observation and imitation.
It also says that learning is a cognitive process that will take place in a social context.