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In processing both spoken and written language, the human brain employs a phonological code to represent linguistic information. This code is unique for each individual language, as each language has its own distinct set of sounds, with very specific rules that govern how those sounds can be combined into syllables and words for discussion see Cohn, Phonological awareness is the ability to manipulate language at the phonological level, that is, to "reflect on the component sounds of spoken words, rather than on their meanings" Goswami,p.
Although phonological processing ability appears to remain relatively stable over time Wagner et al. It is particularly important to recognize the role that phonological awareness plays as children with limited English proficiency LEP learn to read, both in their native language L1 and in their second language L2.
Characteristically, these children exhibit both unique strengths and unique deficiencies in this area. In other words, phonological awareness skills developed in L1 transfer to L2 and facilitate L2 literacy development. Phonological awareness skills are known to develop in a predictable pattern, which is the same from one language to another i.
Gottardo explored this connection between native language phonological skills and second language reading in a study with 92 Spanish-speaking first graders. She found that the strongest predictors of English word reading ability were L1 and L2 phonological processing, L1 reading, and L2 vocabulary Gottardo, The ability of phonological awareness skills to transfer from one language to another presents advantages that are readily apparent; however, transfer can also bring disadvantages.
Sometimes L2 learners inappropriately generalize their first language's rules of syntax, spelling, phonology, or pragmatics to their second language. In terms of phonological awareness, the closer the phonologies of L1 and L2, the greater the likelihood that transfer of skills will be positive rather than negative because children are more adept at manipulating the sounds and patterns that exist in their native language Bialystok, An important factor here may be the type of phonological skill in question.
As Durgunoglu notes, "there are certain literacy concepts and strategies that can be universal and operate across languages. These insights and skills need to be acquired only once and apply in all languages of LLs.
However, there are also language-specific concepts and knowledge; for example, orthographic patterns that are specific to a language" p.
Discussions of literacy instruction for English language learners frequently focus on language of instruction. There is not enough evidence to recommend definitively that overall literacy instruction should be confined to either L1 or L2.
Nevertheless, the strong link between L1 phonological awareness and L2 reading success suggests that efforts to develop literacy skills in L1 will translate into facility with L2 literacy development and that children will benefit from native language scaffolding as they learn to read in a second language.
Teachers can play an important role in encouraging families of students with LEP to provide L1 literacy experiences at home.
Parents may not know that literacy experiences in the child's first language will contribute to literacy development in English. In addition, families often cannot find or afford children's books in their language.Note: This is the bound book only and does not include access to MyEducationLab ® with Pearson eText.
To order MyEducationLab ® with Pearson eText packaged with the bound book, use ISBN Concise and lucid writing made this book in its first edition the leading research methods text written specifically for counselors.
Anthony Schmidt is editor of ELT Research Bites.
He also has his own blog at leslutinsduphoenix.com Offline, he is a full-time English language instructor in a university IEP program.
-Journal of Arts, Science & Commerce E-ISSN ISSN International Refereed Research Journal ww wwww.. r leslutinsduphoenix.com Vol.– III, Issue –1,Jan.  INTRODUCTION: The British colonial education system introduced the teaching of English in Malaysia in thes and it is still.
Teaching Tips - Using Games in the English Second or Foreign Language classroom. Using Games in the English Second or Foreign Language classroom.
Research comprises "creative and systematic work undertaken to increase the stock of knowledge, including knowledge of humans, culture and society, and the use of this stock of knowledge to devise new applications." It is used to establish or confirm facts, reaffirm the results of previous work, solve new or existing problems, support theorems, or develop new theories.
The research’s problem statement, background and the rationale Along with the huge demand of good communication skill in English, the traditional teaching methods focusing much on grammar and vocabulary were gradually substituted by the appearance of a novel one named Communicative Language Teaching.