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Steel sold for twenty-five cents a pound. The ironmasters mined little coal and baked no coke. Not an ounce of iron had been made in Wheeling, Youngstown, Cleveland, or Chicago--the latter being a fur-trading village, without harbour or railroad.
Birmingham, Alabama, was not on the map until two-score years later. There was not a foot of railroad near Pittsburgh, and not one rail, either of iron or steel, had been produced in any part of the country.
As late as the beginning of the Civil War, what was called a first-class furnace would cost about fifty thousand dollars, employ seventy men, and produce a thousand tons of iron a year.
The business was conducted, not by corporations, but by individual ironmasters, who ruled in a truly feudal way over their small communities. There were no millionaires, and what little money an iron-maker had was liable to become waste paper at any moment by the collapse of a rickety bank.
Four furnaces out of five were haunted by the spectre of debt; and in a bad year, like orscores of furnaces were blown out. The tariff, too, was even more variable than the currency.
It was raised and lowered by the fitful gusts of politics untilwhen the Morrill tariff first gave some chance of stability to the unfortunate industry. With the Civil War came the first large orders and continuous business. Every plant was run night and day. Of the three billion dollars that the war cost the Federal Government, a goodly share went to the iron men.
Uncle Sam was the best customer they had ever known. They had a surplus in the bank, at last--a store of capital which enabled them to do business on a larger scale.
When the smoke of battle had cleared away, Captain Eber B. Ward, of Detroit, loomed up as the first of the iron kings, with several millions to his credit and three flourishing plants, in Chicago, Detroit, and Milwaukee.
The marvellous modern expansion of the iron and steel industry was now about to begin. The germ of its stupendous growth lay in the invention of the Bessemer process.
This was more than a trade problem. The railroads were using iron rails, which wore out in less than two years. The largest locomotive of that time would today be considered little more than a toy. There were no skyscrapers and no subways, and stages were practically the only street-cars.
Neither wood nor iron was fit for the new uses of the growing republic; and the high cost of steel made it almost as much out of the question as silver.
The greatest need of the world was cheap steel. At this juncture an answer to the universal demand was voiced by the inventive genius of two men--William Kelly, a Pittsburgh Irish-American, and Sir Henry Bessemer, an Englishman of French descent.Nov 09, · Donald J.
Trump rode a national fury against the political status quo all the way to the White House, winning the election Tuesday to become the 45th president of the United States. The future is bright and promising in the united states November 19, Uncategorized Instead he attended.
36 Mins Ago *Melbourne, Sydney fringes busiest, prolonging building boom. Recommendations to Improve Preconception Health and Health Care United States A Report of the CDC/ATSDR Preconception Care Work Group and the Select Panel on Preconception Care.
The amount of electricity the United States generates from solar power has started to grow rapidly and is projected to reach 18, megawatt hours per day in leslutinsduphoenix.com The Romance of Steel A History of the Steel Industry by Herbert Newton Casson THE BIRTH OF THE BESSEMER PROCESS.
On that bleak November day when Andrew Carnegie was born in a Scottish cottage, the iron and steel makers of America had no more thought of millions than of castles in Spain. Steel sold for twenty-five cents a pound. Jul 19, · The history of American soccer includes a number of watershed moments or dates.
There is , when the United States qualified for the World Cup for the first time in 40 years. And , when it.