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The New York City Tenement House Act of defined a tenement as any rented or leased dwelling that housed more than three independent families. Tenements were first built to house the waves of immigrants that arrived in the United States during the s and s, and they represented the primary form of urban working-class housing until the New Deal.
A typical tenement building was from five to six stories high, with four apartments on each floor. To maximize the number of renters, builders wasted little space.
Early tenements might occupy as much as 90 percent of their lots, leaving little room behind the building for privies and water pumps and little ventilation, light, or privacy inside the tenement. These tenement residents often also worked in the building in such occupations as cigar rolling and garment making.
From the beginning, reformers attacked tenement conditions. In New York City, early attempts at reform included fire-prevention measures, the creation of a Department of Survey and Inspection of Buildings inand the founding of the Metropolitan Board of Health in Meanwhile, city tenements were getting increasingly crowded: It established the first standards for minimum room size, ventilation, and sanitation.
It required fire escapes and at least one toilet or privy usually outside for every twenty inhabitants. However, enforcement was lax. An amendment to the legislation required more open space on a building lot and stipulated that all tenement rooms open onto a street, rear yard, or air shaft. The measure was designed to increase ventilation and fight diseases, such as tuberculosis, that ravaged tenement neighborhoods.
To meet the standards of the law, builders designed the "dumbbell tenement" with narrow airshafts on each side to create a dumbbell-like shape from above.
Despite slightly better fireproofing and ventilation, reformers attacked these buildings as only a limited improvement on existing conditions. His photos and essays drew attention to the health and housing problems of tenement neighborhoods.
The most significant New York State law to improve deteriorating tenement conditions was the Tenement Act ofpromoted by a design competition and exhibition held by the Charity Organization Society in The legislation, opposed by the real estate industry on the grounds that it would discourage new construction, improved tenement buildings.
The law mandated better lighting and fireproofing. Most important, it required that privies be replaced with indoor toilet facilities connected to the city sewers, with one toilet for every two apartments.
Drawing on a tradition of "model tenements" and new government interest in housing construction, reformers designed public housing projects. Their plans emphasized open space, much as an earlier generation had passed laws to provide more light and fresh air for urban working-class families.
The imposed standards, however, often created new problems.
Building closures and slum clearance displaced many working-class families, while new high-rise public housing often fell victim to segregation and neglect.
Although reformers continued to attack working-class living conditions, social pressures sustained many of the problems of poverty and overcrowding.
From Tenements to the Taylor Homes: Pennsylvania State University Press, Columbia University Press, Harvard University Press, Lower East Side Tenement Museum.
Home page at http: How the Other Half Lives: Studies among the Tenements of New York. Cite this article Pick a style below, and copy the text for your bibliography.Sep 28, · “The US is the largest economy on earth,” Matthew Kroenig, an expert on security strategy at the nonprofit Atlantic Council in Washington, said in a conference call with reporters Thursday.
“To Build a Fire” by Jack London is the tragic tale of a man who becomes a victim of the relentless and unforgiving power of nature. Mirroring life as most people experience it, realistic fiction includes the daily challenges and tribulations of being human. The dog had learned at an early age that men make fire and seek shelter to.
Naturalism depicts social problems and views humans as victims of larger biological, psychological, social, and economic forces. London exhibits characteristics of naturalism In "To Build a Fire" because it is about everyday life in the cold.
Fires destroyed downtown areas many were made out of wood making fire easy to destroy. Many cities had suffered "great fires" but due to tragedies cities developed fireproof buildings & fire departments. They were building now in the time were technologies were available.
Start studying ENG: Jack London, to build a fire. Learn vocabulary, terms, and more with flashcards, games, and other study tools. Many might say that the main theme of "To Build a Fire" is of man versus nature, but in actuality the man's greatest enemy is himself.
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