Saul McLeodupdated Humanistic, humanism and humanist are terms in psychology relating to an approach which studies the whole person, and the uniqueness of each individual. Essentially, these terms refer the same approach in psychology.
Psychological theories provide evidence-based explanations for why people think, behave, and feel the way they do. Personality factors, history and early experiences; and interpersonal relationships are seen as important factors in causing depression.
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Unlike biology, psychology is not truly a unified field. There are still many disagreements within the field as to what subject matter is important to focus on, and what methods are best to use for studying the subject matter.
Consequently, different schools of thought within psychology have developed their own theories as to why someone becomes depressed. Psychodynamic Theories Psychodynamic theory was the dominant school of thought within psychiatry and much of clinical psychology during the first part of the 20th century, at least with regard to ideas about how psychotherapy should be conducted.
Early psychodynamic approaches focused on the interrelationship of the mind or psyche and mental, emotional, or motivational forces within the mind that interact to shape a personality.
Sigmund Freud, who is credited with inventing psychodynamic theory and psychoanalysis, influentially suggested that the unconscious mind is divided into multiple parts, including the irrational and impulsive Id a representation of primal animal desiresthe judgmental Super-ego a representation of the rules and norms of society inside the mindand the rational Ego which serves as an attempt to bridge the other two parts.
According to Freud, the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind can come into conflict with one another, producing a phenomena called repression a state where you are unaware of having certain troubling motives, wishes or desires but they influence you negatively just the same.
In general, psychodynamic theories suggest that a person must successfully resolve early developmental conflicts e.
Mental illness, on the other hand, is a failure to resolve these conflicts. There are multiple explanations that fall under the psychodynamic "umbrella" that explain why a person develops depressive symptoms.
Psychoanalysts historically believed that depression was caused by anger converted into self-hatred "anger turned inward". A typical scenario regarding how this transformation was thought to play out may be helpful is further explaining this theory.
Neurotic parents who are inconsistent both overindulgent and demandinglacking in warmth, inconsiderate, angry, or driven by their own selfish needs create a unpredictable, hostile world for a child. As a result, the child feels alone, confused, helpless and ultimately, angry.
However, the child also knows that the powerful parents are his or her only means of survival. So, out of fear, love, and guilt, the child represses anger toward the parents and turns it inwards so that it becomes an anger directed towards him or herself.
A "despised" self-concept starts to form, and the child finds it comfortable to think thoughts along the lines of "I am an unlovable and bad person.
The child also feels a perpetual sense that he or she is not good enough, no matter how hard he or she tries. This neurotic need to please and perpetual failure to do so can easily spread beyond the situation in which it first appears, such that the child might start to feel a neurotic need to be loved by everyone, including all peers, all family members, co-workers, etc.
Psychodynamic theory has evolved a fair amount over its long history, and many variations of the original theory are available today.
One popular branch of modern psychodynamic theory, known as object relations theory, is concerned with how people understand and mentally represent their relationships with others.
The "objects" in object relations theory are representations of people how other people are experienced, represented and remembered by the person doing the objectification.The psychodynamic approach includes all the theories in psychology that see human functioning based upon the interaction of drives and forces within the person, particularly unconscious, and between the different structures of the personality.
May 13, · Major Approaches to Clinical Psychology The philosophical origins of each approach will be discussed in addition to identifying the goals of each approach. The techniques and strategies of each approach will be explained.
The psychodynamic approach suggests several treatment options, which are free association (talking openly. Psychodynamic theory was the dominant school of thought within psychiatry and much of clinical psychology during the first part of the 20th century, at least with regard to ideas about how psychotherapy should be conducted.
The psychodynamic approach takes what is effectively a reductionist view of the human mind and our own self-control over our destinies. Moreover, psychodynamic theories take a purely internalised view of behavior, ignoring external factors such as the biological influences of genetics on our predisposition to some mental problems.
The Psychodynamic approach refers to the work of Freud and those who followed him. Freud wanted to investigate the unconscious mind. To do this he had to develop some methods to help him with his investigation into the unconscious, these were, free association, dream analysis and .
Bowlby () claimed that mothering is almost useless if delayed until after two and a half to three years and, for most children, if delayed till after 12 months, i.e., there is a critical period.