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Increasing competition with the urban and industrial and environmental sectors limits the quantities of water available for further irrigation expansion. Furthermore, the availability of land and water resources which could be developed economically is limited worldwide and even more in the Asian context.
To meet the challenges of the future, the main option which remains is to increase the amount of food that can be produced per unit of land and Training conclusion report.
This apparently simple statement implies many changes but just to mention some outstanding ones: The above means the establishment of different objectives for the irrigation systems than in the past and this inevitably brings the need for changes in the physical system as well as in the management systems.
Modernization could provide a part of the solution. The fundamental question that Training conclusion report be considered is whether the traditional approaches to the modernization and improvement of irrigation systems are still satisfactory today in the light of the new challenges which the irrigation sector faces.
The meeting was opened with an address by the FAO Deputy Regional Representative for Asia and the Pacific elaborating on the background and reasons for convening the consultation.
This was followed by a welcome statement by the Director General, Royal Irrigation Department of Thailand, who stressed the high interest his Department is attaching to the theme of the consultation as being a key solution for improved irrigation water management.
During the four days of the meeting, the following activities were undertaken: Presentations of modernization efforts by representatives from nine countries. Presentations of pertinent technical topics by invited experts. Development by participants of a list of items to discuss.
Organization of these items by major topics as follows: Group discussions three groups of selected remaining topics, followed by plenary reviews of group findings on each day. A technical session on aspects of modernization.
Presentation of initial conclusions and recommendations, and discussion in a final plenary session. The agenda is given in Annex 2. The list of participants is given in Annex 3. The following definition was finally adopted: Irrigation modernization is a process of technical and managerial upgrading as opposed to mere rehabilitation of irrigation schemes combined with institutional reforms,if required,with the objective to improve resource utilization labour, water, economic, environmental and water delivery service to farms.
This definition emphasizes that modernization: There exist significant justifications for irrigation modernization in each country, although the specific reasons will vary by country and project. In the Republic of Korea, a primary motivation for modernization is to reduce human resources utilization in agriculture.
Broader criteria which can be used to assess the needs for modernization include water conservation, improving the reliability of water distribution, reduction of environmental degradation, support of crop diversification, reduction of operation and maintenance costs, and increasing farmer income.
Because economic investment is required for modernization programmes, it is highly desirable to be able to predict and verify the benefits which will result from those actions.
There was a general consensus that the irrigation community lacks an appropriate knowledge base to provide adequate predictions of impacts of specific modernization steps. It was widely accepted in the meeting that there is a strong need for more and better adaptive and diagnostic research, especially coupled with effective information dissemination programmes.
In either case, it is predicted on the assumption that some measure of performance will be improved as a result. Therefore, an essential ingredient of any modernization programme is an initial status and needs survey to establish baseline conditions and to distinguish between symptoms and causes.
Appropriate selection or upgrading of equipment for improved water control is important for achieving a better water delivery service throughout an irrigation project. Such software may be as simple as training in the proper maintenance and operation of the new structures.
However, successful implementation of the new service which improved or upgraded technology may make possible will usually require more significant institutional changes.
The importance of a sense of ownership by all participants and parties affected by any modernized irrigation scheme was repeatedly heard throughout the expert consultation. There was also consensus with the notion that although water user associations WUAs are indeed weak or non-existent in many projects at the moment, widespread success of many further modernization efforts will depend upon their existence and viability and vice versa.
Essential institutional and policy changes which were noted by the participants include: The appropriate technology will depend upon the country and project, and upon the objectives, causes of the problems, economics, etc.
The participants acknowledged the existence of a steep learning curve to date regarding irrigation modernization.
To help reduce the learning curve for future modernization efforts, two specific actions were highlighted: Training should be greatly expanded, and should extend from policy-makers to farmers. The training should be well defined and targeted.New performance audit studied how schools and districts handle notifications of student criminal offenses.
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industrial training report. noraniza binti ahmad daud. bachelor of science (hons) major in chemistry. faculty of science. university of putra malaysia. CHAPTER 3. CONCLUSION As an undergraduate of the University of Motatuwa I would like to say that this training program is an excellent opportunity for us to get to the ground level and experience the things that we would have never gained through going straight into a job.5/5(2).
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